I imagine industries will start small, with people localizing their production needs to where their resources are.
However, as time goes on, and the scale of production needs to accommodate the number of players and the size of constructs they envisage, that massive industrial zones will start to pop up around the galaxy.
I don't foresee major industrial hubs popping up in every solar system, instead, I see them occurring regionally.
We don't really know how many or what kinds of resources will be necessary to create things like refineries, so perhaps the cost of building them will be so expensive that it would defeat the purpose of trying to build them near every single resource vein. If it costs more to produce your refinery than you're actually taking out of the ground, then it makes more sense to ship them up somewhere centrally.
I suggest that the "industrial hub" of Alioth will be near the safe zone, if only because the early players will want to protect their investments (which arguably would lower in price as time goes on, but they're going to want to keep their things safe in the beginning).
It also makes more sense to ship your materials somewhere centrally located, because if it's a major central location, then the cost of shipping there will be cheaper than somewhere on the fringes of space where nobody goes. Why? Because if you're a freight runner, you want to prioritize your deliveries based on places where you can pick up new shipments and turn around easily and go somewhere with a new shipment. If you're shipping things to the far edges of space, you should charge more because of the time it will take you to pick up a new shipment if there is nobody around to pick one up from.
This would be especially true in the early-game, where people carrying cargo are going to want to make the trip worth their time.
I don't foresee people creating refineries and other manufacturing needs by themselves on day one, and because we've been told that the Arkship may have some of those things pre-built and ready for players to use, that is yet another reason that the safe zone may become the first major industrial hub.
Does it make more sense to transport your items into the safe zone to be refined, and then shipped back out to where you are, or does it make more sense to keep your production needs closer to where things are being refined? Although I suppose one could also just sell their raw resources and buy refined ones to be shipped back to them, or work out a trade deal with other organizations/people/whatever.
I know that many organizations and players want to just do everything by themselves, but the lack of equipment in the early game may force the evolution of the industrial zone (around the Arkship) that I foresee. There won't be any raw resources to pull out of the ground there, at least no valuable ones, but there will be plenty of refined resources to buy from other players there.
Also, starting players won't have the skills necessary to actually construct the elements they need to begin their own remote industrial zones (again going back to the idea that people will build near their resources), which is another thing that will somewhat force people to stick around the Arkship at the beginning.
We will, of course, see industrial zones pop up that are focused towards specific projects (shipyards, space stations, etc., anything that requires a lot of resources to produce). But the density of players always coming into the Arkship zone will make it the predominant one.
And any zone that pops up will be relative to the count of players actually there at any given time. If a giant organization creates a massive industrial system that allows them to produce ships at a huge scale, that will only last as long as there are actually players there to manage the zone. If it's discovered that it is more cost effective to move their industrial operations to another part of space (another planet, another solar system perhaps) for any number of reasons, then that once dense zone might become a ghost town over time.
Just throwing my random thoughts into the mix.